But considering that the trait discourages the type of sex that leads to procreation — that is, sex with women — and would therefore seem to thwart its own chances of being genetically passed on to the next generation, why are there gay men at all? This longstanding question is finally being answered by new and ongoing research.
For several years, studies led by Andrea Camperio Ciani at the University of Padova in Italy and others have found that mothers and maternal aunts of gay men tend to have significantly more offspring than the maternal relatives of straight men. The results show strong support for the "balancing selection hypothesis," which is fast becoming the accepted theory of the genetic basis of male homosexuality. The theory holds that the same genetic factors that induce gayness in males also promote fecundity high reproductive success in those males' female maternal relatives.
Through this trade-off, the maternal relatives' "gay man genes," though they aren't expressed as such, tend to get passed to future generations in spite of their tendency to make their male inheritors gay. While no one knows which genes, exactly, these might be, at least one of them appears to be located on the X chromosome, according to genetic modeling by Camperio Ciani and his colleagues. Males inherit only one X chromosome — the one from their mother — and if it includes the gene that promotes gayness in males and fecundity in females, he is likely to be gay while his mom and her female relatives are likely to have lots of kids.
If a daughter inherits that same X-linked gene, she herself may not be gay, but she can pass it on to her sons. But how might the "gay man gene" make females more reproductively successful? John Connolly. Douglas Murray. Lionel Shriver.
Rod Liddle. Charles Moore.
Lucy Vickery. Rory Sutherland. Toby Young. James Forsyth. Jonathan Miller. Anthony Browne. Matthew Parris The fact no one likes to admit: Matthew Parris 5 January 9: See also Alfred Kinsey Gender Sexuality transgenderism. Most Popular Read Recent Read. Roger Scruton: An apology for thinking Roger Scruton. Inside the Brexit Party launch: Dear Remainer parliament: Now revoke Article 50 — if you dare Lionel Shriver. The transgender agenda could topple intersectionality Rod Liddle. Same-sex marriage was legalized in Connecticut in In , a lawsuit brought by Derek R.
Perhaps the most important court case ever for gay men was 's Lawrence vs Texas U. Supreme Court struck down the sodomy law in Texas and, by extension, invalidated sodomy laws in thirteen other states , making same-sex sexual activity legal in every U. The court thus overturned its previous ruling on the same issue in the case Bowers v. Hardwick , where it had upheld a challenged Georgia statute and did not find a constitutional protection of sexual privacy.
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Another important victory for gay men came when in , due to the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act being signed into law, the definition of federal hate crime was expanded to include those violent crimes in which the victim is selected due to their sexual orientation; previously federal hate crimes were defined as only those violent crimes where the victim is selected due to their race, color, religion, or national origin. In , same-sex marriage was legalized in the District of Columbia.
It was also the first same sex marriage legally performed in the State of Michigan, despite Michigan's constitutional prohibition, and held legal standing because of the federally recognized status of the Tribe, which is sovereign on its own lands within the state. Their marriage was the first same sex marriage performed between two men in Indian Country within the United States, other tribes having conducted same sex marriages between three female couples previously.
Also in , same-sex marriage was legalized in Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Utah, and same-sex couples who had a partner facing a terminal illness were allowed to get married in Illinois starting in rather than waiting until June implementation date. Windsor , the Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act DOMA , which had denied federal benefits to same-sex couples who were legally married in their states.
What Does “Gay” Mean?
Perry , which was brought by a lesbian couple Kristin Perry and Sandra Stier and a gay male couple Katami and Jeffrey Zarrillo , the Supreme Court said the private sponsors of Proposition 8 did not have legal standing to appeal after the ballot measure was struck down by a federal judge in San Francisco, which made same-sex marriage legal again in California. In January , same-sex marriage was legalized in Oklahoma, but the ruling was stayed; in , a U. Kelvin Atkinson and Sherwood Howard were the first same-sex couple to marry in Nevada.
Louis County began complying with that ruling, as shortly after Jackson County also did. Perry both of which were in favor of same-sex marriage that any federal appeals court upheld a state's voter-approved ban on same-sex marriage. In January , U. District Judge Robert Hinkle in Tallahassee ruled that all clerks in the state were required under the Constitution to issue marriage licenses to all same-sex couples.
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Granade then ruled that the local probate judge Judge Don Davis of Mobile County could not refuse to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, after which Davis began issuing licenses to same-sex couples, as did many counties in Alabama. Same-sex marriages became performable and recognized in the U. Attorneys representing the government of Guam had said in a May 18 court filing that "should a court strike current Guam law, they would respect and follow such a decision".
Finally, on June 26, , the Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote in Obergefell v. Hodges that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage, legalizing it throughout the United States. Kasich the named defendant was John Kasich , the 69th governor of Ohio , in the U. Southern District of Ohio on July 19, , alleging that the state discriminates against same-sex couples who have married lawfully out-of-state. The local Ohio Registrar agreed that discriminating against the same-sex married couple is unconstitutional, but the state Attorney General's office announced plans to defend Ohio's same-sex marriage ban.
Aside from the legalization of same-sex marriage, there were four other prominent successes for gay men in this decade. In the "Don't Ask Don't Tell" policy was ended, allowing gay men, bisexuals, and lesbians in the U. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination.
Smith that in regard to the issuing of birth certificates, no state can treat same-sex couples differently than heterosexual ones. In , the Department of Justice filed an amicus brief in the 2nd U. On June 11, , Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, was hosting Latin Night, a weekly Saturday-night event drawing a primarily Hispanic crowd.
Lucie, Florida. Mateen called during the attack and pledged allegiance to ISIL. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vanduzer, N. Laws of Illinois , page , enacted July 28, , effective January 1, Becoming Two-Spirit: The Zuni Man-Woman, p. Archived from the original on Retrieved Locke, , 96 S. August 8, Retrieved January 6, Walt Whitman and Peter Doyle".
The Homosexual Novel in America , Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, , p. Look Both Ways: Bisexual Politics. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Reprint edition. Bullough, RN, ed. New York: Harrington Park Press. Courting justice: Basic Books. Retrieved 9 October Exposes the U.
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Government's Anti-Gay Crusades". Gay Today. August 22, The Lavender Scare: University of Chicago Press.
The fact no one likes to admit: many gay men could just have easily been straight | The Spectator
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How the Pride Parade Became Tradition". Chicago's Free Speech Tradition". Newberry Library. Nelson, Supreme Court docket no. Times, January 10, at Nelson at 6 how the federal questions were raised ; Baker v. Nelson, N.